II. - Augustine - De Dialectica - - vuzlib.su
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  • II.

    Complex words (coniuncta) are those which signify several things when put together, e.g. when we say homo ambulat (a/the/0 man walks) or homo festinans in montem ambulat (a/the/0 man walks, hurrying to the mountain), etc. There are some complex utterances which form sentences, like those which have been cited, and others which do not form sentences, but require something, like those we have just cited when you subtract the verb ambulat (walks) which we put there. Although homo festinans in montem forms a complex expression, the sentence is left dangling from it. Leaving aside, then, those complex expressions which do not form sentences, we are left with those which do. There are two species of these: 1. either they are made into sentences subject to affirmation or denial, e.g. omnis homo ambulat (all men walk/any man walks) or omnis homo non ambulat (no man walks), or 2. a sentence is formed which, though it presents a proposal to the mind, can neither be affirmed nor denied, as when we command, wish, curse, etc. E. g., if someone says perge ad villam (go to the town) or utinam pergat ad villam (I wish he would go to the town) or Dii illum perduint (may the gods damn him), it cannot be argued that he is lying or believed that he is telling the truth. For he is affirming or denying nothing. Thus these sentences are not brought into question and do not require disputants.

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